خیابان امید و کارخانه آرد
behaviour. Findings such as these have led some to consider the relationship between cluttering and ADHD (Daly, 1992). Cluttering has also been linked with specific learning disorders (SLD). Wiig and Semel (1984) argue that the type of disfluencies that occur in LD children (interjec¬tions, pauses, word repetition and word revision) also appear in cluttered speech. St Louis and Myers (1997) state that “some of these disfluent LD children might be regarded more appropriately as clutterers” (p. 317).
Cluttering and stuttering
A complicating factor in identifying cluttering is that it frequently coexists with stuttering; although there is disagreement as to the degree of overlap (Daly, 1986, 1993; Freund, 1952; Myers & St Louis, 1992; Preus, 1992; Weiss, 1964, 1967). Freund reported cluttering in 22 percent of a group of 513 people who stuttered, but a much higher incidence of 47 percent in a sub¬group of later onset stutterers. This late onset seems consistent with Van Riper’s (1982) track theory (Track III) in which a mixture of cluttering and stuttering-like behaviours were observed. Preus (1981) found that 32 out of a group of 100 people who stutterered studied also showed symptoms of clut¬tering; a finding consistent with Daly’s (1993) report that one in three people who stutter, also clutter. Weiss (1964, 1967) reports a cluttering/stuttering combination in around 67 percent of those referred to him for therapy; the remaining 33 percent being split equally between “pure” clutterers and “pure” stutterers. Pure stutterers themselves made up only 17 percent of his caseload. Daly (1986) indicated that pure cluttering is comparatively rare: less than 5 percent of clients cluttered, compared to 40 percent who both clut¬tered and stuttered. My own clinical experience concurs with findings of Daly (1986, 1993) and Preus (1981); that is, around one-third of those who are referred for stuttering also present with some cluttering components. I would argue, however, that pure cluttering is not as rare as has previously been reported, but rather that people who only clutter, unlike those who also stut¬ter, are simply less likely to be aware that there is anything pathologically wrong with their speech, and therefore do not refer for therapy.