راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج میدان نبوت- ضلع شمالی بلوار ملاصدرا
stutter, whilst operant practice has been used extensively in the treatment of both children and adults. It is worth noting that for all the exciting discoveries that continue to be made which strengthen arguments for organic accounts of stuttering, remarkably few translate into a therapeutic framework that directly benefits the person who stutters. In contrast, as we see in part 2 of this book, the vast majority of therapeutic approaches to stuttering have their rationale based in one or other psychological viewpoint, and therapy can be readily translated back to the theory that underlies it.
Learning theory and stuttering
Stuttering – a bad habit?
Perhaps the most basic of all learning theories is that stuttering is a bad habit. There is a long history of stuttering being described and treated as such. Over three centuries ago Amman (1700/1965)) had his patients speak loudly and slowly to break such a habit. Erasmus Darwin (1800), on the other hand, believed stuttering was due to a motoric difficulty which
had become habituated, and the fact that over 200 years ago he advocated the use of soft articulatory contact and repeated practice with difficult sounds in order to overcome it might lead us to question whether therapeutic practice really has moved on so greatly. McCormac (1828, cited in Van Riper, 1982) noted that people who stuttered habitually spoke without adequate lung air. Therapy focused on deep breathing and forced exhalation with each word. There have also been a number of subsequent theorists, a noteworthy nineteenth-century example being Alexander Melville Bell (1853) who, in response to those who believed that stuttering had an organic cause, argued that speech was an artificially learned process (through imitation). The habit of stuttering, therefore, was best treated as such. In using controlling tech¬niques, penalizing stuttering and replacing it with overpractised reinforced normal speech, the stuttering habit could be replaced by fluent speech.