راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج تقاطع بلوار استقلال و ملاصدرا
viewed within the contextual framework of Pavlovian (or classical) conditioning, and intro¬duced the notion of primary and secondary stuttering. Some years later, Brutten and Shoemaker (1967) were to redefine the role of conditioning in their two-factor theory of stuttering. This contends that the disorder may be characterized as having a primary stuttering component comprising the physical moments of stuttering such as blocks, repetitions and prolong¬ations, which occur due to classical conditioned negative emotions, and secondary ones, including verbal and nonverbal coping strategies, which are learned through the effects of operant conditioning, associated to the pri¬mary ones. These may include loss of eye contact, hand tapping, head nodding, grimacing, and such like. The significance of this interpretation of stuttering in the 1930s is put into sharp context by Van Riper (1982) who recalled severe criticism of his earlier paper (Van Riper, 1937) demonstrating that secondary behaviours were learned and did not represent abnormal neurological dysfunction, as had previously been asserted.
Diagnosogenic theory of stuttering
Johnson and cerebral dominance
Although primarily noted for introducing the world to his diagnosogenic theory of stuttering, as a younger man Wendell Johnson adhered to the pre¬vailing belief of the time that his disorder was, as Travis and Orton proposed, due to lack of cerebral dominance (see chapter 2 for a discussion of this theory). In fact, Johnson became one of Travis’ students. Having a severe stutter himself, Johnson looked for ways to re-establish the cerebral domin¬ance which he believed would alleviate his stuttering. Although naturally right-handed, Johnson surmised that he used his right hand in imitation of other family members, and now in a rigorous fashion taught himself how to use his left hand. In doing so, all right-sided and bilateral activity was abandoned. Initially, he reported that his fluency improved, and along with it his attitude towards the stutter, but years later he was forced to concede defeat. Eventually, in 1961 he wrote: