راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ابتدای میدان دانشگاه
I put away my left-handed scissors, and with my right hand wrote “Finis”
to the experiment, still stuttering splendidly.
(Johnson 1961, p. 27)
Johnson now refocused his efforts to determine the cause of stuttering within a new area. For many years he had been interested in how many authorities
had examined only adult stuttering, and yet were making assertions as to how stuttering began. In looking at differences between children who stuttered and those who didn’t, Johnson was treading new ground. He began to develop a database of children whose parents considered them to be stutter¬ing and compared this group with others who were not. From his investiga¬tions, and particularly through his interviews with parents of children who stuttered, Johnson believed that the many children who stuttered had parents who enforced high levels of expectancy generally, and specifically with regard to speech and language development. Although conducted before his theory became developed, the often-quoted infamous case of the so-called monster study effectively demonstrates the diagnosogenic position.
The monster study
In 1939 one of Johnson’s Masters students named Mary Tudor undertook an experiment that now seems rather shocking. Tudor (1939) examined six chil¬dren with normal speech and language from an orphanage. In the full know¬ledge that there was nothing wrong with these children, they were nonetheless diagnosed with symptoms of stuttering and told that they were making errors in their speech. In order to deal with this she told them they should speak more carefully. Orphanage staff were also warned that these children should be watched for speech errors, and that any mistakes should be corrected straightaway. Months later, Tudor returned to find that a number of the