راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج بلوار طالقانی شمالی- بالاتر از میدان طالقانی سمت چپ
children she had selected had developed stuttering behaviours. Unfortunately, attempts by her to treat the stuttering were not altogether successful and the disorder, at least in one case, persisted into adulthood.
The diagnosogenic theory
Johnson had already observed that at onset children with stutters and non-stuttering children alike shared the common feature of repetition in their speech. Johnson further speculated that the difference in those children who were diagnosed as stuttering was that the parents (or other significant care¬givers) were under the misconception that their child’s normal disfluencies were moments of genuine stuttering, hence “diagnosogenic”, meaning that the disorder begins with its diagnosis, or more accurately misdiagnosis by the parent. Johnson surmised that the child then picked up on the adverse par¬ental reaction to these disfluencies, which in turn led to struggle and avoid¬ance behaviour as the child attempted to stop the (normal) disfluencies, and genuine stuttering began to develop. The viability of this theory initially depended entirely on evidence that parents of stutterers behaved differently to parents of nonstutterering children, and there is some support for this idea. Moncur (1952) found mothers of stuttering children to be more critical and protective of their offspring than mothers of nonstuttering children. Johnson et al. (1959) found that mothers of stuttering children tended to demand higher standards from their children. Studies have also shown that parents of children who stutter may be more anxious than parents of children who do not stutter (Zenner, Ritterman, Bowen, & Gronhovd, 1978), or more rejecting (Flugel, 1979).
The diagnosogenic theory prevailed through the 1940s and 1950s, largely on the basis of the limited earlier data above. But there are a number of problems. First, not all studies concurred with the above research (Goodstein, 1956; Goodstein & Dahlstrom, 1956). Andrews and Harris (1964) in a rigor¬ous and large-scale longitudinal study of children who stuttered and their environments, found similar personality traits amongst parents of stutterers and parents of nonstutterers, and no