راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج بلوار امام رضا- خیابان شاهد۳
indication that there was a difference between the two groups of parents in terms of parental pressure. Generally, the parents of stuttering children were found to be lower achievers and provided more poorly for their children than the parents of nonstuttering children. This does not seem to fit with the notion of insistence on high achievement reported in the earlier studies. Second, if stuttering were a matter of higher levels of expectation being placed on the child, we might expect to see brothers and sisters equally affected. Third, there is debate as to whether any difference in expectation or home environment actually causes stuttering (Yairi, 1997). It is quite possible that anxiety or expectation could signal a response to the onset of stuttering in their children, rather than being the direct cause of it.
By the late 1950s, Johnson was modifying the diagnosogenic theory. Johnson’s research had led him to the conclusion that stuttering onset was typified by specific types of fluency errors – syllable repetitions, voiced pro-longations and complete blocks – whereas nonstuttering children had phrase repetitions, interjections and pauses. Despite these apparent differences, Johnson argued that there was considerable overlap between the two groups. However, some parents were taking the disfluency types to be normal, while others believed the same disfluency types represented stuttering (Johnson et al., 1959). He now conceded that in addition to listener reaction, the extent of the child’s disfluency and the sensitivity of the child to his disfluencies and the listener’s reactions were integral parts of the diagnosogenic theory.
Therapy, then, focused on modifying parental response and reaction to ensure the child was not receiving the negative feedback which, according to Johnson, was the sole reason for the stutter arising. If stuttering continued in the face of this indirect approach to treatment, Johnson did not advocate attempts to eliminate stuttering, as this would lead to further avoidance. Instead, the child would be taught how to stutter without fear of listener penalty, and without any secondary