راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج شهرک اوج- خیابان بوعلی- جنب مسجد امام علی
behaviours. The suggestion, now, that stuttering is a purely psychological phenomenon, arising only because of the negative listener reaction to (initially) normal disfluencies is discredited.
However, some of the therapeutic concepts have been taken up by others, and are still regarded as central in many therapeutic approaches. For example, Sheehan took up Johnson’s hypothesis that stuttering was associated to learned fear-motivated behaviour in response to punishment. Sheehan’s approach to therapy, however, took a very different path, with confrontation and acute awareness of the stutter being central therapeutic issues (see chapter 12). One can also see some tentative links between the diagnosogenic theory and current treatment approaches such as parent-child interaction (see chapter 10). But while acknowledging that environment, and particularly the interaction between the young child who stutters and the primary care¬givers, can be of central importance to the development of the disorder, most clinicians would now want to distance themselves from the idea that adverse parental reaction is at the centre of the cause of stuttering.
Stuttering as an operant behaviour
Subsequent to the publication of B. H. Skinner’s Verbal behavior (1957), a number of researchers had looked to the proposition that stuttering may be an operant disorder. Recall that Bleumel some 25 years previously had already suggested that there may be a stimulus-response relationship in stut¬tering. The operant field within learning theory offers a different relationship between stimulus and response, and one which lends itself easily to empirical testing. Those involved in both the study and treatment of stuttering have been sharply divided as to the value of an operant theory, and it remains to this day a contentious issue. Unquestionably, its influence has been wide- ranging; perhaps these days more with regard to therapy than theory, but operant conditioning (and there has been much written about its role with stuttering) does require some detailed attention.
How does operant conditioning work?