راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج انتهای بلوار امام رضا- تقاطع تعاون

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج انتهای بلوار امام رضا- تقاطع تعاون

 

contingent on presentation of 105dB tone

Brookshire & Martin (1967)       Stimulus words “wrong”           Reduction in stuttering

Quist & Martin (1967)    The words “wrong”, “no” and “uh – uh” Reduction in stuttering, when “punishing” stimulus words were presented

Crowder & Harbin (1971)           Electric shock    Stuttering decreased by around 85% contingent on use of electric shock

Haroldson, Martin, & Starr (1968)          Time out           Stuttering decreased due to enforced period of silence contingent on stuttering

Martin & Siegel (1975)   Electric shock    Stuttering decrease contingent on use of electric shock

Flanagan, Goldiamond, & Azrin (1959)   Electric shock    Stuttering decreased contingent on use of electric shock

Hedge (1971)    Electric shock    Contingent shock reduced stuttering in oral reading

Gross & Holland (1965)  Electric shock    Decrease in stuttering contingent on electric shock

Goldiamond (1965)       Delayed auditory feedback       Moments of DAF, contingent upon stuttering moments, decreased stuttering

 

 

of their subjects who experienced a decrease in stuttering following time¬out contingency believed that this was due to the calming effect of not having to speak. For these speakers, at least, the

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