راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ۳۸ متری نبوت
contingency was in fact positively reinforcing, rather than negatively reinforcing. Finally, we should bear in mind that just as some commentators have criticized some of the operant methodology (for example, Sheehan, 1984; Van Riper, 1982), so to concerns have been raised over some experiments that do not support the operant perspective (Ingham, 1984). The subsequent success of operant treatment programs (usually used in conjunction with fluency shaping therapy programs) appears to demonstrate that operant programs can be extremely effective in controlling stuttering in adult stuttering. More recently, the development of the highly successful Lidcombe therapy pro¬gram for preschool children demonstrates this in striking fashion. Unlike most operant therapy programs which work via the (operant) administra¬tion of a range of fluency controlling techniques, this program works sim¬ply on the carefully structured administration of verbal praise and (gentle) admonishment of stuttering moments. No techniques or fluency skills are applied. See part 2 of this book for discussion of operant techniques in adult therapy (chapter 12) and the Lidcombe program for preschool children (chapter 10).
An operant explanation of the onset and development of stuttering
In one sense, the above heading is something of a misnomer. Operant theory is atheoretical. Thus, the fact that stuttering can be seen as an operant does not, in theoretical terms, have any ramifications for the underlying cause or causes of the disorder itself. However, although stuttering can certainly be controlled through the use of operant procedures, it cannot be eliminated through the use of operant approaches, particularly with older clients. Some consideration of the nature of the stimulus-response relationships that might be at work is therefore in order.
As we will see elsewhere, a concept common to a number of frameworks of stuttering is that it arises in childhood out of normal disfluency (see also Bloodstein, Alper, & Zisk, 1965) and it can be quite natural for children, when beginning to expand their language and motor speech capabilities, to become nonfluent. One operant stance is that certain forms of these disfluen- cies then become