راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج شهرک اوج – بوعلی ۱۰
and 1980s increasingly turned away from any stand-alone idea of stuttering as an operant perspective. Particu¬larly, technological advances in brain imaging and movement measuring devices in the 1980s and 1990s have made brain studies and detailed move¬ment control studies both more viable and more accurate, and specifically many researchers looked to the areas of functional neurology and speech kinematics to explain the disorder. However, it is important that we do not confuse issues relating to the cause of the disorder with those relating to therapy. In one sense, from an operant perspective, it does not matter what the exact nature of stuttering is and what forces underlie it. The more pertinent question is “Can it be effectively treated as an operant”?
The Lidcombe Program provides a good example, here. The program uses operant procedures, yet the ethos behind the program (as we see in chapter 10) is that stuttering at onset is a rather simple problem with motor control. Whether empirical testing eventually bears this theory out or not is in one sense irrelevant. There seems little question that the disorder at onset can be treated as an operant. The issue is more complicated for established stuttering, where operant techniques can provide an effective framework from which to use motor speech control techniques. However, these techniques are controlling stuttering, not eliminating it. Thus, while the establishment of fluency control may be seen to be an operant, the chronic disorder (and thus elimination of the chronic form in adults) cannot be seen to be under operant control.
Thus, we can disassociate the idea of stuttering being operant in nature, as opposed to something that can be helped by an operant approach to treatment.
Stuttering and approach-avoidance conflict
We have already said that “habit” may seem a gross oversimplification to describe a phenomenon such as stuttering, but it is not totally unrelated to more complex theoretical positions, one of which is known as approach- avoidance conflict. Wyneken (1868, cited in Van Riper, 1982) offers an early account of stuttering as a form of inertia, arising from the cancelling out of opposing needs and