راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ضلع غربی بلوار طالقانی شمالی-بالاتر از میدان نور
The stutterer is thus a doubter of speech. If he dares the word which
seems difficult to him, then however his will, and one which is directly
opposed to the will proper. The muscles which underlie respiration, phonation and articulation are often not sure, if I may express myself thus, whom they should obey, and as a consequence thereof do not fulfill their functions with the necessary synergy, and stuttering occurs.
Wyneken continues with a further clear example of approach avoidance outside the speech domain:
The relation is similar as when somebody, for example, wants to venture a jump, but in the very moment in which he leaps doubts that he will succeed. Often he can no longer stop the leap, but also does not jump with sufficient assurance (l’aplomb necessaire), and so does not reach his goal.
One hundred years later, Sheehan’s (1975) approach-avoidance conflict theory viewed stuttering in a somewhat similar light, placing the cause somewhere between psychoanalysis and learning theory. Sheehan’s premise was that stuttering, in large part, was due to a build-up of guilt. Original guilt refers to the negative associations and feelings that occur at the onset of stuttering. Later, a secondary cause of guilt may develop alongside the increased self¬awareness that the stuttering behaviour (blocks and repetitions) is receiving negative listener reactions. The person who stutters becomes caught in a tug-of-war between two opposing needs: the need to speak and the need to remain silent for fear of stuttering. In approach-avoidance theory, repetitions and blocks reflect attempts to balance out the need to communicate and the fear of failure that might result when