راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج خیابان سیدالشهدا-بالاتر از درمانگاه شهدا
stutter while others do not. However, clinicians will also note that a good many children they see do not fit into this pattern. (See for instance the section on tracks of development in the following chapter.) As well, some studies have not found any difference between levels of expectation of parents with children who stutter, and children who do not (Andrews & Harris, 1964).
It may be useful to think of the anticipatory struggle hypothesis as relating to one set of variables which may be of particular significance to a particular subgroup of young stuttering children. The issues concerned here may also seem to fit neatly into Starkweather’s Demands and Capacities model of stuttering, which has been outlined in chapter 1.
Stuttering has a long history of being explained as a psychological disorder. Although some have claimed that those who stutter differ fundamentally in areas such as personality, anxiousness and other variables, evidence is equivocal on the subject. There is also little evidence to substantiate claims made in the early part of the last century that stuttering can be helped by psychoanalysis, as some have claimed (Coriat, 1943; Glauber, 1958). However, stuttering unquestionably does have a significant psychological component associated with its development, and we have seen that this can be modelled in a number of ways. A number of attributes of learning theory and operant theory have contributed substantially to the understanding as to how the disorder develops and, as we see in part 2, these have had a significant impact therapeutically, as well as theoretically. We see this reflected in a num¬ber of mainstream approaches described in part 2, as well as in the growing number of psychological approaches now being applied to counselling ther¬apy models (see chapter 13). As with organic explanations, discussed in other chapters, psychological theories may best be seen as part of an integrated perspective on stuttering that includes not only those factors which affect the development of the disorder, but also perspectives which may relate to a predisposition to stutter. This demands and capacities model has been discussed at the end of chapter 1.