راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جهانشهر- بعد از بلوار مولانا
psychological changes which lead to the development of secondary speech and nonspeech characteristics. We can speculate that functional or (even structural) neurological differences might exist amongst young children who stutter and older primary school children, although this possibility awaits a database of information on the neural correlates of stuttering in young children. Similarly, there is a large gap in current understanding of the motor control capabilities of young children who stutter, largely due to difficulties in children at age 3 or 4 tolerating the measurement procedures involved.
The present chapter explores some more ways in which stuttering changes over time. One obvious factor is the child’s environment, but we choose to explore this and related issues within the therapeutic context in part 2. For the present, we are interested in a genetic component; first to the appearance of stuttering and then why, when it does arise, it resolves in the majority of cases, even when untreated, and relatedly we consider the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery. We begin, though, by outlining two opposing track models of stuttering onset and development. Van Riper’s (1982) model sug¬gests stuttering is characterized not only by four different onset types, but also different courses of development which affect both primary and second¬ary stuttering. Starkweather (1997) on the other hand suggests at least nine subgroups at onset.
114 Stuttering and cluttering Track development of stuttering
In addition to the recent developments in genetic research which may lead to the discovery of stuttering subgroups based on inheritance, there have been a number of very early attempts to chart the development of stuttering behaviour, from its inception, to its eventual establishment as a chronic and intractable disorder. For example, Bleumel (1913) was one of the first to differentiate between what he later came to call primary and secondary stuttering. Later, Froeshels (1964) noted that stuttering followed a relatively consistent pattern of development, at the start of which the