راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج انتهای خیابان گلستان- پشت تامین اجتماعی
model of stuttering. This model views stuttering as a nonlinear phenomenom whose existence and varied development can be explained as the interaction of a range of environmental and organic factors which are “dynamic”, that is, changing in strength over time. A small change in one factor may over time result in new stuttering behaviours, or new associated secondary behaviours. Changes may be great or small depending on the strengths of the factors at any given time and the complex nature of their interrelationships. In placing the heterogeneity of stuttering at the core of the model, and explaining the disorder in terms of the nonlinear interaction of a range of factors, Smith and Kelly’s (1997) model bears resemblance to the Demands and Capacities conceptualization (Starkweather, 1987; Starkweather & Gottwald, 1990) discussed in chapter 1; a framework which underpins a range of thera¬peutic approaches (Conture, 2001; Rustin et al., 1996; Starkweather, 1997; Starkweather & Gottwald, 1990).
This was the most commonly observed of the four tracks, comprising nearly half of the 44 on whom Van Riper had collected longitudinal data, in add¬ition to just over half of the remaining children who stuttered. Onset, in the form of syllable repetitions which are produced at normal speed, and in the absence of apparent awareness or concern appear between the ages of 2;6 and 4;2, following previously normal speech. Periods of remission are common. There may be substantial inconsistency of stuttering behaviour, with more advanced types of stuttering being seen suddenly and without apparent cause before an equally abrupt return to the milder form, or even another period of remission. Even when not in remission, the children are capable of extended periods of good fluency, with stuttering occuring in clusters, usually in word initial position, or on the most meaningful word in the sentence (all of these are loci which are of linguistic and motoric significance; see chapters 4 and 5).