راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جهانشهر- انتهای بلوار مولانا به سمت جمهوری
As the stutter develops, irregular rhythm appears in the stuttered syllables and the number of repetitions per syllable increases from around three at onset, as does frequency of moments of stuttering. Prolongations also start to occur at this point, which Van Riper singles out as a danger sign of established stuttering. Coincident with this the child may start to attempt to force sounds out, in an effort to finish the prolonged sound. Frustration is also now a feature and signs of tension and struggle, initially in the shape of lip and jaw contortions, begin to appear, often followed by secondary head and limb movements. The “cycle of stuttering” begins to take effect now with parental concern being transmitted to the child, which in turn leads to even greater struggle and also fear. Fear almost always leads to avoidance. For the Track I child, Van Riper contends that this results in postponing devices, “ums, ers” and an increase in synonym use to aid word avoidance. Situation fears will also start to appear. The final stages of Track I development sees the stutter become fully established. As Van Riper (1982) puts it: “The stuttering child acquires the self-concept and role of ‘stutterer’ with all the evil these entail. Personality changes may occur; defenses are set up. The disorder becomes an integral part of his existence” (p. 99).
This was the most commonly seen track after Track I, comprising 25 percent of the clients with longitudinally data; and around 16.5 percent of the total number. Onset is much earlier than Track I, coincident with the onset of connected speech. As with Track I, disfluencies originally consisted of syllable and single syllable word repetition, but Track II children do not show even¬ness of pace; their repetitions are quick and dysrhythmic. Note that both unevenness of tempo of repetition and increased speed of repetition have been identified as consistent with incipient stuttering, as opposed to nor¬mal nonfluency, in a number of unrelated studies (Campbell & Hill, 1993; Throneburg & Yairi, 1994; Williams, 1978). The majority of this group show marked expressive language delay, with phrase construction not appearing until they are between 3 and 6 years old. Van Riper does not comment on language comprehension abilities, but the implication appears to be