راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج زمینهای دانشکده کشاورزی

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج زمینهای دانشکده کشاورزی

 

Track 1  Track II Track III            Track IV

Prolongations show increased tension, tremors, struggle. Evidence of frustration.         Little change; little awareness; little frustration.       Tremors; struggle, facial contortions; jaw jerk, gasping; marked frustration.       Little change.

^p-j^ Leading to ^p-j^

Track 1  Track II Track III            Track IV

Overflow of tension, tremors, retrials; speech output decreases; signs of concern.        Duration of nonfluencies increases; more syllabic repetitions; little awareness.        Interrupter devices (e.g., starters, fillers) become more prominent; rate slows; more hesitancy; more refusal to talk.      Little change in type, but duration and visibility increase; no interrupters or new forcing of speech; increased speech output.

^p-j^ Leading to ^p-j^

Track 1  Track II Track III            Track IV

Word fears and avoidance occur; fears of certain sounds arise; then situation fears develop; repetitions and prolongations turn into silent fixations with struggle (blocking); poor eye contact and tricks to disguise the difficulty are observed; shows hesitancy, embarrassment.       Occasional fears of situations, not of words, or sounds; long strings of syllabic repetitions at fast speed are added to other behaviours; good eye contact; no disguise; output of speech increases; little avoidance; primarily repetitive; unorganized.         Intense fear of words and sounds; many avoidances; patterns change in form and grow more bizarre; much overflow; output of speech decreases; will cease trying to talk; poor eye contact; normal speech becomes hesitant; nonvocalized blockings are frequent; primary tonic blocks with multiple closures.     Very few avoidance or release behaviours;

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