راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کوی کارمندان جنوبی- ولیعصر ۵-روبروی فروشگاه اتکا
not much evidence of word fears; few consistent loci; very aware of stuttering; stutters very openly; good eye contact; little variability in the stuttering behaviour; normal speech very fluent; talks a lot; consistent pattern; few silent blockings; either tonic or clonic.
Note that Van Riper is not saying that the establishment of new behaviours at each new level are in any way synchronized across the tracks. In each case, the time taken for the disorder to progress will vary.
Figure 7.1 Developmental characteristics of the four tracks of stuttering development (adapted from Van Riper, 1982).
122 Stuttering and cluttering Starkweather’s nine tracks of stuttering
More recently, Starkweather (1997) has argued that there may be more than the four tracks that Van Riper originally suggested. Based on a review of around 100 case histories, he offers 9. Although more loosely defined than Van Riper’s tracks, they are nonetheless of interest and we outline them briefly below.
This track somewhat follows Van Riper’s Track I. Onset begins between ages 2 to 5 with syllable and whole word repetitions, and in the absence of any other speech or nonspeech difficulties. This may be distinguished from normal dis- fluency if there are three or more repetitions. Parental concern is also a defining feature of this track, and counselling is advised to ensure negative listener reaction is not transmitted back to the child, and that struggle and avoidance do not develop.