راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کوی کارمندان جنوبی- پشت موسسه زبان ایران
This group of children will experience greater difficulty when talking to strangers than with those they are comfortable with, and moments of more severe stuttering may be specifically related to specific scenarios that trigger their particular anxiety.
124 Stuttering and cluttering Children with specific brain anomaly
This is an interesting one. Children in this track develop stuttering alongside some neurological event such as epilepsy or seizure disorder occurring in childhood. Note that for this track, at least, there is no suggestion of a specific causal relationship, as there would be for a neurogenic or psychogenic stutter. In some cases stuttering precedes the neurological diagnosis and in other cases it appears following it. The pattern of stuttering seen in this track may be unusual, and there may be other behavioural or physical signs which are not usually seen in other tracks of early stuttering. For example, Starkweather also links this group of children to Tourette’s syndrome. The grunts, vocal tics and extraneous facial movements seen in Tourette’s may in some cases appear consistent with the tension, struggle and avoidance behaviour seen in stuttering. (This is worthy of note: we see in chapter 2 that Tourette’s syndrome bears similarity to stuttering in behavioural terms, but some have argued that they may be related in aetiology also both with regard to inheritance and to neurotransmitter underpinnings.) Starkweather also adds, somewhat unscientifically: “Sometimes children who just don’t look right end up with this diagnosis” (p. 272). In sum, stuttering occurs alongside signs of mild cognitive difficulty, but lacking significant deficits in any one particular area. Subsequent neurological referral often fails to uncover any specific abnormality, and unfortunately, the stuttering often continues to be highly resistant to therapy.
Starkweather does not go into detail about the relative prevalence of the tracks, but this pattern of