راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه بلوار نبوت
Kresheck (1996) add an absence of treatment to these criteria. The problem is that spontaneous recovery has been recorded and explained in a variety of ways. As Finn (1998) points out, some have experienced a slow recovery (Wingate, 1976) while others have had treatment which could have been a confounding factor (Sheehan & Martyn, 1966). Crucially, some who regard themselves as recovered still experience moments of stuttering (Finn, 2003b; Wingate, 1964). The figures for spontaneous recovery arise from either retrospective or longitudinal studies, and are con¬sidered more likely to be reliable than those data collected from question¬naires and interviews. When only findings from the former group are taken, a more homogeneous set of figures arise. For example, the following studies reported remission rates, without therapy, of 79 percent (Andrews & Harris, 1964), 80 percent (Panelli, McFarlane, & Shipley, 1978) 65 percent (Ryan, 1990), and 89 percent (Yairi & Ambrose, 1992a, 1996). Both retrospective and longitudinal studies face the same set of problems, namely:
- The problems in lack of consistency in definition of stuttering occurring in the first place: there may be significant differences in the criteria used to define presence or absence of stuttering and some research has shown that some who claim to have recovered from stuttering may well not have had a stutter in the first place (Lankford & Cooper, 1974).
- The possible effects of treatment: indeed, there may be a lack of consist-ency as to what is actually meant by treatment. There may have been either direct treatment via a speech and language therapist/pathologist, indirect treatment (as discussed in chapter 10), or even self-taught or administered therapeutic procedures, self- or relative-administered treatment.
- The extent to which the recovery is complete: again problems with con-sistency as to what actually constitutes complete recovery; for example, separating normal nonfluency from stuttering (see chapter 10).
7 The development of stuttering 127 Implications for the treatment of stuttering