راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج دولت آباد- بیست متری ابوسعید
A number of studies have shown that an individual is at greater risk of stuttering if they have a stuttering relative (Andrews & Harris, 1964; Cox, Kramer, & Kidd, 1984; Gray, 1940; Johnson, 1959; Kant & Ahuja, 1970; Kidd, 1984). In a review of over 20 early family studies compiled by Van Riper (1971) it was discovered that between 24 percent and 80 percent of people who stuttered also reported a family history of the disorder. The often-cited Andrews and Harris (1964) study of 1000 families found a family history of stuttering for 38 percent of the individuals who stuttered as opposed to 1.4 percent among control speakers. They also found that of those with a family history, males were more likely to develop stuttering than females, and that females in this group were more likely to have relatives who stuttered than their male counterparts. These key findings were later substan¬tiated in a series of reports from another respected longitudinal study by Kidd and associates known as the Yale Study (Kidd, 1977; Kidd, Kidd, & Records, 1978; Kidd, Reich, & Kessler, 1973).
More recently too there has been verification of many of Andrews and Harris’ (1964) findings. Ambrose, Yairi, and Cox (1993) found that amongst
their sample of 69 young children who were beginning to stutter and their families, nearly 70 percent of the children had relatives who stuttered. How¬ever, unlike Andrews and Harris (1964) they found that male and females had similar likelihood of having relatives who stuttered. This difference may be explained by the different ages of the probands that were studied. Where Ambrose et al. (1993) looked only at young children, some of Andrews and Harris’ children were as old as 11 years. As Guitar (1998) points out, this may mean that the Andrews and Harris study has greater relevance for persistent stuttering, whereas Ambrose and colleagues’ study may be pertinent to both transitory stuttering and persistent stuttering because some of these children recovered quickly from stuttering, whilst others did not. Ambrose et al. (1993) also found that the