راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه بلوار دانش آموز-دولت آباد-خیابان حیدرخانی

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه بلوار دانش آموز-دولت آباد-خیابان حیدرخانی

 

ratio of males to females was 2:1 in the preschool years; significantly lower than the 4:1 (or higher in some studies) reported for the adults. This suggests that girls have a higher recovery rate, which may involve a genetic component. However, findings from a recent study by Howell, Davis, Cook, and Williams (in preparation) indicates the reverse; 53 percent of boys recovered as opposed to 40 percent of girls. In addition, adult females who stutter have also been found to have a higher proportion of relatives who also stutter (Kidd, Heimbuch, & Records, 1981), which also suggests a stronger genetic component for females than for males. However, as Ludlow (1999) has noted, there is evidence that females may be better able to use both left and right hemispheres for language process¬ing (Shaywitz et al., 1995) and might be able to use this increased right hemisphere capability to recover from stuttering.

In a further attempt to determine if recovery from stuttering might be explained as a genetic subgroup, Ambrose et al. (1997) analyzed data from 66 children who stuttered and their extended families. They found that females are far more likely to recover than males, consistent with their idea that similar numbers of male and females start to stutter, but that this ratio changes to around 4:1 (males vs female children) by around the age of 7, after which age the ratio remains unchanged. They also noted that children who had relatives who had a persistent stutter were more likely to be persistent stutterers themselves, and that those children who recovered had a signifi¬cantly higher number of relatives who themselves had recovered from stutter¬ing (around 4 percent as opposed to 1 percent). These differences led Ambrose et al. (1997) to suggest there may be a genetic link to both recovery and persistence, and that recovery does not appear to be a genetically milder form of stuttering, nor are the two types of disorders genetically independ¬ent. Key findings were that (a) persistent and recovered stuttering share a common genetic cause, but also that (b) the persistent variety is, at least in part, the result of additional genetic factors. Guitar (1998) speculates that a single gene model might explain the data of young children, who have a greater likelihood of recovery, whilst a polygenetic model might explain add¬itional factors that increase the likelihood that stuttering will persist into adulthood. Ambrose et al. (1997), on the other hand, argue that both

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