راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج شهرک وحدت- خیابان اصلی- میدان راه آهن
variables: this would help determine the probability of spontaneous remission and relapse.
3 The need to examine extrinsic factors which may precipitate or maintain stuttering: areas such as language ability, motor speech ability and parent-child interaction are just a few examples which we discuss in this book.
4 The need to increase the pool of high density pedigrees for genetic modelling and linkage analysis.
Finally, there is cause for optimism that a gene (or genes) for stuttering will be found. Lai, Fisher, Hurst, Vargha-Khadem, and Monaco (2001) have linked the discovery of a mutation of a gene on chromosome 7 to a language dis¬order that affects grammatical development and articulation. The mutation affects areas of the brain responsible for speech and language functioning.
Very recently, Cox and colleagues have made exciting discoveries that sug-gest stuttering too may now be linked with specific chromosomes (Cox et al., 2005). The strongest findings were evident on chromosome 9 for the pheno¬type “ever stuttered” and chromosome 13 for the phenotype “persistent stut¬ter”. Families where only females had ever stuttered were associated with strong signals on chromosome 21, whilst families where only males had ever stuttered showed a strong signal for a region on chromosome 7. Linkage analyses (a procedure which finds the general location of genes) was under¬taken on the signals from chromosomes 9 and 13 (the primary findings) and on chromosomes 7 and 21 (sex-specific analyses). Findings revealed little of significance conditional on chromosomes 13 and 21, but analyses on chromosomes 7 and 9 were found to replicate some earlier linkage study findings.
Families with the strongest linkage on chromosome 7 also showed a strong pattern of linkage on chromosomes 12 and 18, again replicating findings from earlier studies on the significance of chromosome 12 (Riaz et al., 2005; Yairi, Ambrose, & Cox, 1996). Taken together, these findings led