راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جاده ملارد-بعد از پل عابر پیاده(روبروی شهرداری منطقه ۱۰
Louis provides the only definition that directly implicates loss of fluency. (Interestingly, a little later Daly, 1996 included lack of awareness as a mandatory feature of cluttering: a point we shall return to below and in chapter 17 on cluttering therapy.) More recently, St Louis, Raphael, Myers, and Bakker (2003, p. 4) have offered a reworked definition:
Cluttering is a syndrome characterized by a speech delivery which is either abnormally fast, irregular or both. In cluttered speech, the per¬son’s speech is affected by one or more of the following: (1) failure to maintain normally expected sound, syllable, phrase and pausing patterns (2) evidence of greater than expected incidents of disfluency, the majority of which are unlike those typical of people who stutter.
This provides a comprehensive coverage of motoric and fluency aspects, although I feel that mention should be given to language difficulties that are commonly seen in the disorder. This is something Daly (1992) addresses when describing cluttering as “a disorder of speech and language processing result¬ing in rapid, dysrhythmic, sporadic, unorganized and frequently unintelligible speech. Accelerated speech is not always present, but an impairment in formu¬lating language almost always is” (Daly, 1992, p. 107). All these differences serve to highlight the multifaceted nature of the disorder, and they bring into focus the difficulties for diagnosis; a process often complicated further by the common presence of co-occurring speech and language disorders.
Aetiology of cluttering
As with stuttering, there is currently no known cause for cluttering. Some have noted a genetic basis and cluttering, like stuttering has been found to run in families where stuttering or cluttering has been observed (Freund, 1952; Luschinger & Arnold, 1965). Freund (1952) found that out of a group of 121 clutterer-stutterers 84 percent reported a family history of either tachylalia (fast speech rate), or tachylalia together with stuttering as opposed to 21 percent among people who stutter. Weiss (1964) went so far as to claim that all cluttering occurred through genetic transmission and that