راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جاده ملارد- خیابان سعدی جنوبی- نبش میدان عشاق الحسین

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جاده ملارد- خیابان سعدی جنوبی- نبش میدان عشاق الحسین

 

Ward, 2004). It is common for cluttering to present more as a language problem than a motoric one. In such cases speech output is more likely to show a lack of linguistic fluency, characterized by poorly constructed language rather than as an output which is motorically disrupted (see below for examples of linguistic and motoric cluttering). St Louis, Myers, Faragasso, Townsend, and Gallaher (2004) explored listeners’ perceptions of the speech of two adolescents who cluttered (one severe, one mild-moderate). The two groups of 48 people judged that rate and naturalness were the least acceptable for those who clut¬tered, followed by articulation. Disfluency and language were considered the most acceptable of the five attributes. One problem with this research is that

language difficulties may not have been key features of these two speakers, as they might be for others. Nonetheless, it is significant that disfluency itself is not something that seems prominent to the listener. Though this might at first seem surprising given that cluttering is defined as a disorder of fluency, it actually brings home the point that cluttering tends to present as an output which is primarily disorganized (motorically or linguistically) rather than dis- fluent. Any loss of fluency comes about primarily because of this disorganiza¬tion, whether due to a loss of motor control or a lack of linguistic ability.

Table 8.1 Ten significant features of cluttering (after Daly & Cantrell, 2006)

Item     Percentage agreement between the 60 expert raters

1          Telescopes or condenses words (e.g., omits sounds      93.33

2          Lack of effective self-monitoring skills   90.00

3          Lack of pauses between words; run-on sentences        83.33

4          Lack of awareness        83.33

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