راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج خیابان سعدی- پایین تر از میدان عشاق الحسین
We can now look at some of the subcomponents of cluttering which have been considered significant in a little more detail.
1 Tachylalia. This is perhaps the most often symptom reported by the lay person. “Fred speaks really quickly. I really find it hard to understand him, sometimes.” Although a fast rate is a strong feature of the disorder, it is fast bursts of speech interspersed with short inappropriate pauses that constitute the defining characteristics. There are very many highly fluent speakers whose habitual speech rate approximates that of many tachylalic clutterers. Froeschels (1955), for example, found only 50 percent of a tachylalic group to be clutterers.
2 Excessive coarticulation. This also known as overcoarticulation (Dalton & Hardcastle, 1989). Typically, the person who clutters will display distor¬tions and simplifications similar to those seen in young children when they are developing language. This may include cluster reductions and weak syllable deletion. For the person who clutters, however, this is directly related to the fast speech rate, resulting in a reduced ability to maintain articulatory accuracy at higher speech rates. The resulting lack of precision in the articulation of consonants, particularly, may result in an output that sounds markedly dysarthric.
3 Articulation errors. Speech output can also be compromised by the types of articulatory errors seen in apraxia of speech (or verbal apraxia). Indeed, some commentators have likened cluttering to the disorder of apraxia itself (De Hirsch, 1961). Typical speech errors include antici¬patory errors (for example, gleen glass for green glass, and phoneme reversals (or spoonerisms) e.g., bo gack for go back. Tongue-twisters may be particularly difficult for clutterers, even when speed is reduced. Note that, like the errors made by apraxic speakers, it is only very rarely that clutterers will produce articulatory errors that result in non-native sounds being heard.