راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جاده ملارد- سعدی جنوبی- انتهای گلستان دوم
Language may be affected at a number of levels:
1 Grammar and syntax
- Excessive amount of phrase repetitions and revisions may occur due to language formulation difficulties.
- Problems with verb conjugation and incorrect pronoun and pre¬position usage.
- Sentences may be simplified and word order may be incorrect.
- Function words in particular may be prone to deletion.
- Incomplete sentences. Sentences may tail off unfinished (St Louis, Hinzman, & Hull, 1985).
2 Lexical level
- Problems with lexical access (word retrieval) may be evident.
- Frequent and overuse of fillers and interjections such as “um” and “er”. Unlike stuttering, where these are used as devices to postpone a difficult word or sound, they are used by the person who clutters to help give time to organize speech. They may also be used to mask word-finding difficulties, which are particularly prevalent amongst this population.
- There may be substitution of a semantically related item (semantic paraphasia). For example, Saturday may be produced as Sunday, chair as table, and names also may become confused (Paul when meaning Peter). The speaker may or may not be aware of these errors.
• Maze behaviour: clinicians should be aware of this term, coined by Loban (1976). It refers to