راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج رزکان-بلوار امیرکبیر-خیابان لاله
an output that, as the title suggests, is indirect, and explores linguistic “dead-ends”. Speech may become subject to pause, hesitation and revision as it progresses. This term provides a cover-all for a range of difficulties listed above. The term was originally applied to the language of younger children, but is now frequently used to refer to older children and adults.
3 Pragmatic level
- The person who clutters may experience more generalized difficulties with expressive language, particularly in organizing linguistic infor-mation for discourse and topic maintenance (Teigland, 1996).
- Summarizing and correctly sequencing information can be problem¬atic. Given a front-page newspaper story to recall, a person who clutters might spend time retelling comparatively unimportant details, use tangential speech (becoming sidetracked into unrelated issues) whilst failing to mention that the focus of the story was of a murder.
In sum, if we consider Levelt’s (1989, 1992) model of speech and language
processing that we use to help describe the levels of linguistic breakdown in stuttering (see chapter 5), we can see that the impact of cluttering can be identified at all three levels: conceptualization, formulation and articulation.
Awareness of cluttering
Consistent across much of the early literature is the idea that, in direct con¬trast to stuttering, those who clutter tend to be unaware of their speech/ language difficulties, but this notion requires further qualification. Adoles¬cents and adults who clutter may often be aware of the fact that there