راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج رزکان نو- کوچه ارغوان ۶
but are also present in noncommunicative actions, which give rise to inattentiveness and problems with cognitive functions such as high-level short-term memory. This can explain the impression of absentmindedness and the more general lack of awareness that some commentators believe exist amongst this group of speakers. Typically, the poor self-monitoring can translate as poor listening skills and these, together with inattentiveness, may lead to misunderstandings and inappropriate comments and responses. Although a significant number of clients do not exhibit this stereotype my personal experience is that a surprising number do appear to fall within the cluttering stereotype proposed by Weiss, over 40 years ago. Weiss also believed that the cluttering personality was associated with a general lack of organizational skill and untidiness; although these are features which subsequent commentators have been less willing to confirm. It is certainly true to say that the concept of a cluttering stereotype has not been rigorously pursued by researchers in recent years.
Cluttering and normal disfluency
Unlike stuttering, I would argue that much cluttering behaviour sits on a continuum with normal speech. At one end of the continuum we have the highly fluent individual who vary rarely makes any speech/language error. At the other end we have severe cluttering. Clearly, differentially diagnosing these two speakers would not be a problem. However, it could be argued that even the highly fluent speaker “clutters” when interjecting an “um .. .” even though this might occur perhaps once only in 500 words. If we accept then, that everyone has cluttering moments, including people who stutter, the dif¬ficulty is in defining a point on the continuum beyond which the individual may be diagnosed as a person who clutters: in other words, the issue of distinguishing between a speaker who demonstrates moments of cluttering and an individual who is “a clutterer”. This distinction is often very difficult to make and is in contrast to the situation with stuttering, where differentially diagnosing pathological disfluency at onset can be difficult (see chapter 9) but where even mild stuttering is readily recognized as such when it has become established. (See section below on cluttering spectrum behaviour as one way of characterizing cases of borderline cluttering.)