راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه جاده شهریار-شهرک صنعتی سیمین دشت-حدفاصل
adulthood. In stark contrast to the difficulties experienced by many adolescents who stutter during their secondary school years, the vast majority of these speakers experi¬ence few ramifications to their cluttering speech patterns. The speech/language characteristics are also usually taken for granted by peers at school and else-where. While there may be some amusement at the features of the clutterer’s speech, there are usually only minor (if any) social penalties associated with it, and usually the lack of concern over speech continues. The adolescent who clutters is unlikely to be unaware of any underlying problem at school, and later it seems rare that it causes significant problems during tertiary education either. Often, adult cluttering referrals come via work colleagues and line managers who are concerned that the individual’s chances of promotion are being compromised due to that person’s lack of clarity in speech. Quite often, the clutterer is surprised that others have difficulty understanding them although, often depending on the severity of the disorder, others are very aware that speech is difficult to follow. There is also variability as to the unawareness of the range of difficulties they have, but to many the clinician’s identification of a specific speech/language disorder comes as a surprise.
Cluttering and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
It is not uncommon for young children who clutter to display behavioural characteristics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; St Louis & Myers, 1997). Such behaviours may include impulsive and uninhibited behaviour and poor attention; problems which tend to become more noticeable as the child starts school when a higher degree of conformity is required. These behaviours may translate as inattentiveness to school work, fidgeting, poor organizational skills or a general inability to concentrate. Consistent with the fact that clutterers tend to have reduced awareness of their speech difficulties, so too unnecessary errors in written work may go unnoticed by the individual. Unlike their stuttering counter¬parts, children who clutter (and adults too) typically are compulsive talkers. It is not unusual for younger children who clutter to find difficulty in control¬ling such behaviours and this may lead to disciplinary action for their some¬times disruptive