راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جاده شهریار بعد از شهرک صنعتی سیمین دشت بین دشت
Weiss (1964), still a respected authority on cluttering, takes a more radical stance on the relationship between stuttering and cluttering, but while his
argument that both cluttering and stuttering develop from the same physio¬logical anomaly remains viable, his contention that cluttering underpins most stuttering does not stand up to empirical testing. (Were this to be the case fluency clinicians successfully treating stuttering might expect to find clutter¬ing to exist in all of these cases.) All these figures need to be taken with a degree of caution though. For as long as there is no data-based definition of cluttering, we cannot be sure that the groups labelled as clutterers by the various different researchers represent a homogeneous population. Perhaps in the future it will be possible usefully to define cluttering subgroups. In the meantime, even considering the basic strands of the disorder such as lan¬guage based, motorically based or mixed, may provide helpful starting points. Below, I suggest an addition to the cluttering terminology which can help with the problem of a cluttering definition, and particularly of describing the coexistence of cluttering with other disorders.
Cluttering spectrum behaviour
I would like to propose the use of the term “cluttering spectrum behaviour” (CSB) as a useful descriptor for those speakers who display some cluttering characteristics, but for whom a diagnosis as “a clutterer” may be less certain. (Of course, this term would not be applied to speakers who only make occa¬sional speech and language errors.) Let’s take the example of a speaker who does not stutter but does exhibit an excessive number of phrase revisions, together with repeated fillers and word repetitions. This speaker also produces a number of anticipatory speech errors. Speech rate and rhythm is normal, however. So, here the speaker presents with elements of cluttering, but without some of the characteristics that are usually regarded as being at the core of the disorder. Clinical opinion may differ as to whether this person is actually “a person who clutters” but there will be agreement that there is, at least, excessive linguistic nonfluency. Thus, clinicians might agree that