راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج بیلقان- خط چهارم حصار و وسیه
clutter¬ing may also be seen under the headings of articulation and language dis¬orders. In the same way that we would not diagnose acquired cluttering for a person with, say, elements of high-level aphasia and mild dysarthria, could we not then make a case for cluttering to be nothing more than a mixture of (already recognized) speech language difficulties, rather than a separate clin¬ical entity? Weiss’ interesting (1964) perspective of cluttering as being just one feature of “central language imbalance” might suggest so. If he is correct in his assertion that cluttering is effectively just one symptom of a larger prob¬lem, particularly if this problem is multimodal and ultimately related to thought processing rather than speech or language processing, perhaps we should be looking at cognitive processing to find the core of this problem. Perhaps cluttering can better be described as just one of a number of modu¬lar features, alongside lack of rhythmicality (not just within the speech domain) and depressed motor control abilities which may or may not be associated with this more centralized disorder.
The problem is that at the moment cluttering constitutes a broad church, and ultimately cluttering’s distinctiveness depends on the narrowness (or breadth) of the definition one employs. Aside from the speech and language issues, we have the notion of the cluttering personality, together with the involvement of such cognitive processes as attention and memory. Yet we still lack verifiable data as to what extent these features really do characterize those who clutter. A consensus needs to be reached as to which other elements are central to the definition, and of course more research is needed. As things currently stand, there are no answers to these questions, and consequently clinicians’ opinions differ as to what falls within the umbrella term of clutter¬ing. This in turn means that comparing the research on cluttering is difficult, given the different working definitions that research groups have used to define their cluttering subjects. Equally significantly, this inevitably leads to inconsistent diagnosis of the disorder from clinic to clinic. A survey of expert researchers and clinicians is currently being organized to help determine where the significant diagnostic factors lie (Daly & Cantrell 2006). We must be optimistic that this will lead us toward some better answers. In the mean¬time, perhaps the use of the term “cluttering spectrum behaviour” can be of use in