راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ورودی شهرک خاتم الانبیا
Starkweather, 1987). Yairi (1981) also suggests that younger preschool children showing less than 3 percent of disfluent words have comparable fluency to adults, and that those with 4-9 percent of disfluent words are only a little more disfluent than adults. Only those children with over 10 percent disfluent words may be at greater risk for stuttering. This “at risk” figure of 10 percent seems a little high, and clinicians may feel more comfortable with Conture’s (1997) conten¬tion that upward of 3 percent disfluency, in the form of whole or part-word repetitions, together with a minimum of 3 units of repetition signals a child of between 2 and 5 years to be at risk of stuttering (see also Table 9.1).
For example, stuttering tends to be identified more by sublexical speech errors (particularly phoneme repetition, prolongations and blocks) while normal disfluency is usually associated more with word or phrase level repeti¬tion and revision (Boehmler, 1958; Conture, 2001; Gregory and Hill, 1984; Johnson, 1959; Van Riper, 1982). It is also important to remember, though, that there may occasionally be instances where sublexical disfluencies are incorrectly perceived and supralexical disfluency incorrectly perceived as normal disfluency. There is to date remarkably little objective research as to how listeners make fine level judgements along the SLD/ND continuum. For
Table 9.1 Summary of normal and stuttering-like disfluencies seen in preschool children
Type of Normal disfluency? Stuttering-like disfluency? References
example, the voice onset time in a nonstuttered production of the word “pen” would be expected to last around 50 ms or 1/20 of a second. Increasing this delay to 1000 ms (1 second) would very likely result in the word being judged as stuttered, but where exactly the change in judgement between fluent and stuttered within these extremes is made is unknown. Advances in automatic