راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جنب پل بیلقان
Thus: 175 = 0.875
0.875 x 100 = 87.5%
Agreement here is less than 90%. These two raters would need to look again at how they arrived at their figures, and to practise further counts to ensure higher levels of agreement.
Figure 9.3 The calculation of intra-speaker and inter-speaker agreement.
experienced raters until high level agreement on speech data with these expert raters is achieved.
Aside from the practical problems already mentioned, there are variables too relating to the difficulty of measuring a disorder whose severity is often subject to situational variability (Block, 2004; Ingham & Costello, 1984). It is quite common for people to attend clinic expressing embarrassment that their stuttering is not as severe as it usually is, and for some speaking to a clinician can be fluency enhancing in itself. On the other hand, it is sometimes the case that clients can be extremely anxious about coming for an assessment and this may be reflected in raised severity. It may also be the case that, for reasons which may or may not be obvious to the person concerned, they are having a good day or a bad day. The variability in severity is one of the defining characteristics of the disorder, and clinicians will need to look at their find¬ings from fluency counts in the light of the client’s and caregiver’s comments as to general levels of severity. In some cases, it may be possible for the client to collect audio or videotaped evidence of speech which demonstrates