راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک- حاشیه اتوبان تهران کرج
“cognitive” assessment tool. Many clinicians have come to rely on it heavily (see below).
Another significant development in the 1980s came with the application of the Locus of Control of Behaviour checklist (Craig, Franklin, & Andrews, 1984) to the evaluation of stuttering. This questionnaire requires the person to respond to 17 questions using a 7-point scale and probes the degree to which the individual believes that situations related to his stuttering are under his control or due to external factors. In addition to providing useful back¬ground information, research has suggested this assessment also carries some predictive value, with those reporting a higher degree of internality more likely to maintain benefits gained in therapy than those who believe they have less control (or higher degree of externality). The mid-1980s also saw the development of the Self-Efficacy Scaling by Adult Stutterers (SESAS; Ornstein & Manning, 1985) which measures confidence in speaking across a number of situations. More recently, two new additions include the Wright and Ayre Stuttering Self-rating Profile (WASSP; Wright & Ayre, 2000) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES; Yaruss & Quesal, 2004).
Modified Erikson Scale of Communication Attitude (S-24)
The S-24 represents the development and revision of an attitudinal assess¬ment originally devised by Erikson (1969). The S-24 scale (Andrews & Cutler, 1974) has remained unchanged in 30 years. Despite the development of recent and more sophisticated assessment tools it is still widely used in clinics across the world. It requires respondents to answer 24 statements relating to how confident they feel in their verbal communication and how life events are implicated by the stutter. Interviewees are only given the option of respond¬ing either “true” or “false” to all 24 statements. When completed, the clin¬ician allocates a score of 0 to each response that indicates a positive attitude toward speaking, whilst a score of 1 is given to each negative perception. For example, a client responding “false” to the question “I feel I am usually making a good impression when I talk” (question 2) would receive 1 point, while a reply of true would receive 0 points. Respondents must