راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-خیابان پنجم غربی-روبروی مدرسه شهید چمران
of usage of skills, even if the individual feels perfectly competent to implement them.
The Wright and Ayre Stuttering Self-rating Profile (WASSP)
The Wright and Ayre Stuttering Self-rating Profile (WASSP; Wright & Ayre, 2000) represents another recent attempt to examine cognitive and affective variables amongst adults who stutter age 18 or over (see Figure 9.5). The profile has also been used with clients aged 14 to 18, but the authors suggest that not all clients of this age group will be able to use the profile effectively and the clinician should exercise her judgement on such cases. Like OASES, WASSP was developed with the help of feedback from clients who stutter. The questionnaire comprises 26 statements that examine the speaker’s self¬perceptions across five subscales. The first deals directly with the client’s perception of their overt stuttering behaviour (nine items), the remaining sections consider thoughts about stuttering (three items), feelings about stut¬tering (six items), avoidance due to stuttering (four items), disadvantage due to stuttering (four items). For each item, clients are required to circle the number on a seven-point Likert type scale (where 1 = “none”; 7 = “very severe”) which best describes each aspect of their stutter. In addition, at “time 1 ” (the beginning of a period of therapy) clients are encouraged to write down any aims or expectations they might have for a given block of therapy, and at “time 2” (completion of that period of therapy) to summarize what they feel has been achieved during that time period. The client and clinician then compare and discuss the two profiles to evaluate progress over that time period.
Included in the WASSP package are details on its development, sections on validity and reliability and instructions for use, together with an appendix, which includes completed profiles on two adults who stutter as well as the blank WASSP profile forms, which can be photocopied. WASSP covers a lot
WASSP Rating Sheet