راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-کیانمهر-ابتدای بلوار امیرکبیر
Yaruss & Quesal, information; your (WHO’s IFC others to
2004) reactions to stuttering; communications in daily situations; quality of life. classification). complete.
Sheehan’s iceberg model
Sheehan (1975) drew the simple but powerful analogy between stuttering and the form of an iceberg. To introduce this model, the clinician simply explains that, like the iceberg, stuttering has a visible component above the waterline, but also a greater and potentially more significant mass, hidden from view, underpinning the visible aspect. Clients then simply fill in a blank outline of an iceberg, itemizing stuttering components “above the waterline” including the blocks, prolongations and repetitions, alongside other visible struggle and escape behaviours that will be noticeable to others. Activity below the water¬line relates to the cognitive and affective aspects that are not likely to be observed by listeners; for example, embarrassment, frustration, shame, fear, anger and avoidance, and these aspects too are recorded. The iceberg model differs from all those already described in that it helps only with identifica¬tion. There is no objective measurement of any of the behaviours and cogni- tive/affective responses to stuttering that the client is listing. Also, it is the only procedure mentioned here that does not result in quantitative data. But it has many strengths. It is quick and easily administered. Also, either with or without prompting from a clinician (or perhaps other group members), completing an iceberg is of value both as a self-identification baseline meas¬urement tool and as an empowering and liberating experience in its own right. This can be of value when it comes to desensitization aspects of ther¬apy, as well as identification (see chapter 12) with regard to its usage in a number of programs. Finally, because of the clear and