راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر_بلوار ابن سینا-خیابان هشتم
simple imagery it portrays between observable and attitudinal aspects, it is very suitable pro¬cedure to use with even younger children (as we do with our children at the Apple House stuttering centre in Oxford, see chapter 11).
Assessment of preschool stuttering
The nature and scope of the assessment of younger children varies from clinic to clinic and, understandably, tends to reflect the theoretical orientation of the therapeutic approaches that are used within that clinical setting. Having said that, there is pretty much a consensus as to a range of basic assessment procedures that should be applied in all cases when assessing a young child with a suspected stutter. Where opinion differs is over the need to apply certain procedures which may be regarded as essential in some clinics, but optional or even unnecessary in others. In the following chapter, we describe a very comprehensive approach to the assessment of preschool stuttering, based on the need to consider in fine detail the effects of the lived-in environ¬ment that subsequently underpins the therapeutic approach. Presented below is a more generic form of assessment procedures.
The most fundamental question that the assessment of the child first presenting at a clinic needs to answer is simply “Does the child stutter?” If assessment procedures indicate “yes” then the next question is “What is the risk that this stutter will persist?” If “no”, the clinician needs to ascertain if there are any indications that the child is at increased risk of developing a stutter in the future. To answer these questions and to accrue enough information to develop a suitable therapeutic plan, the clinician must consider not only fluency measures but, since stuttering may be associated with other developmental speech and language problems, also be alert for a range of associated difficulties. The following procedures will help the clinician to gain a picture of the relevant difficulties that a child is experiencing:
1 Case history/parent interview. This will elicit the parent’s perceptions of the problems, and