)

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cluttering underpinned all stuttering – an opinion which is not shared by authorities nowadays.

EEG evidence for an organic explanation has found those who clutter to show more abnormal patterns than those who stutter (Langova & Moravek, 1964; Luschinger & Arnold, 1965; Moravek & Langova, 1962). Luschinger and Arnold (1965) found that while a group of people who stutter had essen¬tially normal EEG patterns, 90 percent of those diagnosed with cluttering evidenced deviant EEG traces. Like stuttering, cluttering has been observed as a feature of Tourette’s syndrome (Van Borsel & Vanryckeghem, 2000; Van Borsel et al., 2003) and some have observed cluttering subsequent to neuro¬logical damage (Hashimoto et al., 1999; Lebrun, 1996; Thacker & De Nil, 1996). Also like stuttering, it occurs more frequently amongst males than females in a ratio of about 4:1 (Arnold, 1960; St Louis & Hinzman, 1988). The motoric component to the disorder has led some to describe cluttering as a type of dyspraxia, and the language component to lead others to link the disorder to a high-level organic dysphasia (De Hirsch, 1961; Luschinger & Landolt, 1951). As with stuttering, some commentators have speculated that cluttering is a disorder of time perception, that is, an auditory based disorder, rather than a speech/language production one (Van Riper, 1992). Molt (1996) found that, in contrast to matched control subjects, three school aged clutter- ers performed below normal test-established criteria on central auditory pro¬cessing (CAP) measures and also showed abnormal auditory event potential (AEP) waveform patterns.

Characteristics

One significant problem in trying succinctly to identify the characteristics of a clutter lies in the fact that there may be two basic strands to the disorder; a language component and a motor one. Some researchers (e.g., St Louis et al., 2003) do not include a language component in their definition because there are some people who clutter whose language planning appears intact (although there is acknowledgement that language planning difficulties are often implicated). This may be true, but cases of cluttering in the absence of any language difficulty are rare (Cooperman, 2003; Daly, 1996;

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