راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-بلوار ارم- خیابان زنبق

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-بلوار ارم- خیابان زنبق                           with two principle objectives in mind: to facilitate a descriptive analysis of stuttering and to understand what stuttering means from that individual’s perspective. It can be used to a) describe comprehensively what the stutterer does when he “stutters”; b) broaden the stutterer’s definition of his problem; c) analyse the relationships among struggle, avoidance and expectancy; and d) formulate therapeutic goals and evaluate…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر- بلوار سینا

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر- بلوار سینا                                    

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-کیانمهر-خ بوستان ۲

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-کیانمهر-خ بوستان ۲   Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory (PSI) This questionnaire was developed by Woolfe (1967) and characterizes cogni¬tive and affective components of stuttering in terms of struggle, avoidance and expectancy. This is one of the earliest examples of a way of measuring the effect of stuttering from the individual’s perspective rather than that surmised by the clinician. Although again requiring binary responses, it is Table 9.3 Mean and standard deviation figures of a group of 36 adults who…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-کیانمهر-میدان امام

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج مهرشهر-کیانمهر-میدان امام   answer all questions. Thus the maximum score (indicating maximum negativity toward speech) is 24, whilst the minimum score is 0. A key problem with the S-24 is that many respondents find it difficult to be constrained by the binary answers they are required to give. For example, statement 16 – “I am embar¬rassed by the way I talk” – may be considered “true” in some circumstances but “false” in others. The respondent must decide which response…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک- حاشیه اتوبان تهران کرج

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک- حاشیه اتوبان تهران کرج   “cognitive” assessment tool. Many clinicians have come to rely on it heavily (see below). Another significant development in the 1980s came with the application of the Locus of Control of Behaviour checklist (Craig, Franklin, & Andrews, 1984) to the evaluation of stuttering. This questionnaire requires the person to respond to 17 questions using a 7-point scale and probes the degree to which the individual believes that situations related to his stuttering are under…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج بلوار چمران تا میدان امام حسین

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج بلوار چمران تا میدان امام حسین   DURATION Duration is assessed by finding the three longest stuttering moments and then calculating the mean length of time of these three. Like the raw figures on frequency of stuttering, this time, calculated in seconds regardless of the stuttering subtype, is then converted to a total duration score. In the original version, Riley advocated counting words and expressing the frequency count in terms of percentages of stuttered words. As already mentioned, this…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- بلوار ۳۲متری- خیابان شمشاد

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- بلوار ۳۲متری- خیابان شمشاد   of blocks prolongations. Calculate mean scores and outliers for each stuttering subcategory. Word avoidance           Client presenting with little or no overt stuttering          Frequency count needs to be taken during oral reading.     with data on severity of stuttered moments, not just frequency and concomi¬tant secondary activity. The SSI breaks stuttering down into three com¬ponents: frequency, duration, physical concomitants. Within each category, task scores are given to raw data, which are eventually…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- خیابان زیتون- جنب خدمات شهری

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- خیابان زیتون- جنب خدمات شهری   Problem           Example           What can be done Inter-clinic variability in data collection criteria   Pause behaviour           Clearly specify measurement criteria used. Intra-clinician variability A clinician’s analysis of the same passage of speech reveals very different fluency counts or rate calculations       As much practice as necessary to ensure that reliability is above 90%. Ensure consistent criteria are being applied for all analyses. May be discrepancies between speech rate data depending on the type of…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حصار خط یک-زکی خانی اول

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حصار خط یک-زکی خانی اول   differ¬ent levels of fluency to those seen at the clinic. For example, a parent may bring in a tape of the young child playing at home, or an adult may record himself giving a presentation at work. Table 9.2 summarizes some of the difficulties inherent with the frequency count. Interpretation of frequency counts So, the baseline data have been collected. Speaking rate and percentage of syllables have been calculated, information qualifying the procedures…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جنب پل بیلقان

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج جنب پل بیلقان   syllables. Thus:    175 = 0.875 200 0.875 x 100 = 87.5% Agreement here is less than 90%. These two raters would need to look again at how they arrived at their figures, and to practise further counts to ensure higher levels of agreement. Figure 9.3 The calculation of intra-speaker and inter-speaker agreement.     experienced raters until high level agreement on speech data with these expert raters is achieved. Aside from the practical problems already…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا – خیابان نیلوفر ۳ شرقی

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا – خیابان نیلوفر ۳ شرقی   when calculating either rate or percentage of stutter¬ing. Acceptability of error between two counts of the same data can be calculated using the formula given in Figure 9.3. Generally, for both inter¬rater and intra-rater measures, the accepted minimum reliability figure is 90 percent (Boberg & Kully, 1985; Prins & Hubbard, 1990). Pearson product- moment correlations may also be applied to test inter-rater agreement. Druce, Debney, and Byrt (1997) suggest correlations above.…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- خیابان نظامعلی (شهید محمودی نژاد)

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک بالا- خیابان نظامعلی (شهید محمودی نژاد)   fluency count will only record that both had 1 percent SS. Clearly, the severity of the moments of stuttering must be considered alongside the frequency data. To deal with this, it is commonplace for clinicians to note, in addition to the frequency and syllable count data, the main characteristics of the stutter, and within each category (phoneme repetition, prolongation, etc.) to record the mean number of repe¬titions (or length of prolongation,…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک-شهرک جهان نما

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک-شهرک جهان نما   whereas speaker B’s rate will work out at an abnormally slow 90 SPM (6 syllables/4 seconds x 60). Obviously, this can be misleading. Substituting articulatory rate formulas for speaking rate ones resolves this problem. Alternatively, the rater can make a clear indication in the notes that in terms of communicative content the repetitive behaviour of speaker A is resulting in an inflated SPM figure. To summarize, then: 1          When calculating percentage of syllables stuttered, speaking…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک نو- بلوار پاسداران- خیابان گلبرگ

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک نو- بلوار پاسداران- خیابان گلبرگ   162-230 SPM) for conversational speech of nonstuttering adult speakers, and these norma¬tive data have been universally accepted. This equates to a mean of 140 WPM with a standard deviation of 115-165 WPM. Reading rates have been found to be quicker, ranging between 210-265 SPM or 150-190 WPM (Darley & Spriestersbach, 1978). But here again we find potential sources of variability because, while this figure has been widely adopted, the methods and pro¬cedures…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج خط چهارم حصار

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج خط چهارم حصار   subsequent fluency count with clarification of the criteria used. Primary vs secondary stuttering This is another potentially difficult area and there are different perspectives as to how moments of secondary stuttering that present as abnormal or superfluous motor behaviour should be dealt with in the fluency count (or even if such secondary stuttering should be included at all). On the one hand, it would seem wrong not to include secondary activity. After all, for a…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه شمالی شهرک خاتم الانبیا

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج حاشیه شمالی شهرک خاتم الانبیا   increased rate, as do pauses which carry tension or respiratory struggle (Ambrose & Yairi, 1999; machine recognition of stuttering moments may point the way for the future in this area (for example, see Howell, Sackin, Glenn, & Au-Yeung, 1997). To make a decision about supralexical disfluency we need to consider a number of factors. One useful indicator is frequency of the repetition or revision: “it’s it’s over there” may be regarded as a…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ورودی شهرک خاتم الانبیا

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج ورودی شهرک خاتم الانبیا   Starkweather, 1987). Yairi (1981) also suggests that younger preschool children showing less than 3 percent of disfluent words have comparable fluency to adults, and that those with 4-9 percent of disfluent words are only a little more disfluent than adults. Only those children with over 10 percent disfluent words may be at greater risk for stuttering. This “at risk” figure of 10 percent seems a little high, and clinicians may feel more comfortable with…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج شهرک خاتم الانبیا- ورودی شهرک

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج شهرک خاتم الانبیا- ورودی شهرک   be collected on the extent of each moment of stuttering; for example, the length of blocks, number of repetitions. (We return to this last issue in the section on fluency counts below.) Syllables or words? As far as the total count is concerned, a fundamental decision as to whether to work with words or syllables needs to be made. Inter-rater reliability in counting both words and syllables can be high (Ingham & Packman,…

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دوم

دوم   constitute stuttering must be clearly defined and adhered to beforehand (see below). Second, this requires the physical manipulation of a stopwatch and possibly two event counters simultaneously.  All of this has to be done whilst paying attention to the client’s speech. This can be tricky, particularly if the speech sample is taken from conversation, when turn taking can lead to lots of clicking on and off with the stopwatch. Once the speech sample data have been collected, the clinician uses the syllable count and stuttering count data to…

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راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک نو- خیابان محمودی منش- خیابان حافظ- انتهای فرعی

راهکارهای درمانی خاص در درمان لکنت زبان کلینیک تخصصی لکنت کرج کلاک نو- خیابان محمودی منش- خیابان حافظ- انتهای فرعی   frequency count. This involves collecting a speech sample from the client, ascertaining the number of syllables or words spoken within the sample and then calculating the number of syllables or words which are stuttered. This figure is most commonly expressed as a percentage of stuttered syllables, or stuttered words (%SS; %WS) and usually accom¬panied by an analysis of speech rate expressed in the number of syllables or words spoken…

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